Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

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Presented by: Carol Boeth

Please continue to keep Black history alive 365 day / yr.

VOICE OF THE FUGITIVE
Traveling Agents for the Fugitives Home Society in Mich. Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

 

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851-1852)

The writer provides a brief update on his recent activities.

voice of thefugitive
Anti-Slavery in Illinois. Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

Mary E. Bibb

Mary Elizabeth Bibb (1820 – 1877) was an American-born educator and abolitionist leader. She is considered by some to be the first female black journalist in Canada.

The daughter of free black Quaker parents, she was born Mary Elizabeth Miles in Rhode Island around1820.  She studied at the Massachusetts State Normal School in Lexington, graduating in 1843.  The principal of that school was Samuel Joseph May, who supported women’s rights and education for black people.  She was one of the first black woman teachers in North America and taught in schools in Boston, Albany and Cincinnati.  She became involved in anti-slavery activities and, in 1847, met Henry Bibb, an escaped slave and abolitionist.  She became Bibb’s second wife in June the following year.

After the Fugitive Slave Act was passed in 1850, the Bibbs moved to Canada West, settling first in Sandwich and then in Windsor. The couple frequently took fugitives into their home who had arrived in Windsor via the Underground Railroad. In 1851, they began publishing a newspaper Voice of the Fugitive, the first major newspaper targeted at black Canadians. Mary and Henry Bibb were also part of the leadership of the Refugee Home Society, which helped former slaves settle in Canada, providing them with land and building schools and churches. Mary also taught school, educating both children and adults.  In 1851, the Bibbs organized a North American Convention in Toronto on how free black Americans and Canadians should respond to the Fugitive Slave Act. Henry died suddenly in 1854 at the age of 39

Sometime after 1855, Bibb married Isaac N. Cary. She operated a store in Windsor from 1865 until 1871.  After Cary’s death, she moved to Brooklyn, where she died in 1877.

In 2005, Mary and Henry Bibb were declared Persons of National Historic Significance by the Government of Canada.

 

Speaker:  Bibb, Mary E.

Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

A teacher asks for help to continue educating children of the fugitives and the poor in her area.

refugeeschool
Schools among the Refugees. Voice of the Fugitive – April 12, 1851

References

 

Henry Bibb

Henry Walton Bibb (May 10, 1815 in Cantalonia, Kentucky – 1854) was an American author and abolitionist who was born a slave. After escaping from slavery to Canada, he founded an abolitionist newspaper, The Voice of the Fugitive. He returned to the US and lectured against slavery.

 

 

Biography

Bibb was born to an enslaved woman, Milldred Jackson, on a Cantalonia, Kentucky, plantation on May 10, 1815. His people told him his white father was James Bibb, a Kentucky state senator, but Henry never knew him.[1] As he was growing up, Bibb saw each of his six younger siblings, all boys, sold away to other slaveholders.[1]

In 1833, Bibb married another mulatto slave, Malinda, who lived in Oldham County, Kentucky. They had a daughter, Mary Frances.

In 1842, he managed to flee to Detroit, from where he hoped to gain the freedom of his wife and daughter.  After finding out that Malinda had been sold as a mistress to a white planter, Bibb focused on his career as an abolitionist. He traveled and lectured throughout the United States.

In 1849-50 he published his autobiography Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, An American Slave, Written by Himself,  which became one of the best known slave narratives of the antebellum years. The passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 increased the danger to Bibb and his second wife Mary E. Miles, of Boston. It required Northerners to cooperate in the capture of escaped slaves. To ensure their safety, the Bibbs migrated to Canada and settled in Sandwich, Upper Canada now Windsor, Ontario.

In 1851, he set up the first black newspaper in Canada, The Voice of the Fugitive.  The paper helped develop a more sympathetic climate for blacks in Canada as well as helped new arrivals to adjust.  Due to his fame as an author, Bibb was reunited with three of his brothers, who separately had also escaped from slavery to Canada. In 1852 he published their accounts in his newspaper.[1]

He died young, at the age of 39.

Bibliography

  • Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, An American Slave, Written by Himself, Self-published, New York: 1849

READ MORE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Bibb

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

Brief overview of Liberian president Roberts’ Inaugural Address, and the current influence of the American Colonization Society in Liberia.

refugeeliberia
Liberia. Voice of the Fugitive – April 22, 1852

Speaker or author: editor

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

The writer tells his readers that fugitive slaves are still arriving in Canada via the Underground Railroad. From their stories he has discovered that human beings are more motivated to work by positive reward than by the negative punishment of slavery.

refugeey
“The Cry is, Still They Come.” Title: Voice of the Fugitive – April 22, 1852

Speaker or author: editor

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

Brief overview of the Canada Mill and Mercantile Company that offers opportunity for employment and a relief from charity for fugitive slaves.

fugitivecanadamill
Subtitle: Canada Mill Company. Title: Voice of the Fugitive – April 22, 1852

Speaker or author: editor

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

The writer continues his story of one man’s experience as a fugitive from slavery that was begun in another issue of the paper.

fugitiveslave
Subtitle: The Lost is Found. No. 4. Title: Voice of the Fugitive – April 22, 1852

Speaker or author: editor

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

The writer recounts the experience of a fugitive slave who has just arrived in Canada.

Description of file(s): one scanned, two columned, newspaper page

fugitiveselfemancipation
Subtitle: Self Emancipated. Title: Voice of the Fugitive – April 9, 1851

READ MORE:  http://research.udmercy.edu/find/special_collections/digital/baa/index.php?field=DC_title_parent&term=Voice+of+the+Fugitive+%281851+-+1852%29

Dorothy Height

Dorothy Irene Height (March 24, 1912 – April 20, 2010)[1] an American administrator and educator, was a civil rights and women’s rights activist specifically focused on the issues of African-American women, including unemployment, illiteracy, and voter awareness.[2] She was the president of the National Council of Negro Women for forty years and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1994 and the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004.

Early life

Dorothy Height was born in Richmond, Virginia. During childhood, she moved with her family to Idaho, Pennsylvania, a steel town in the suburbs of Pittsburgh, where she graduated from Rankin High School in 1929. Height received a scholarship from the Elks, which helped her to attend college.

dorothyheight
Remembering Dr. Dorothy Height.

She was admitted to Barnard College in 1929, but upon arrival was denied entrance because the school had an unwritten policy of admitting only two black students per year. She enrolled instead at New York University, earning an undergraduate degree in 1932 and a master’s degree in educational psychology the following year.[5] She pursued further postgraduate work at Columbia University and the New York School of Social Work (the predecessor of the Columbia University School of Social Work).

Career

Height started working as a caseworker with the New York City Welfare Department, and at the age of 25, she began a career as a civil rights activist, joining the National Council of Negro Women. She fought for equal rights for both African Americans and women. In 1944 she joined the national staff of the YWCA. She was also an active member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority throughout her life, developing leadership training programs and ecumenical education programs.[7] She served as national president of the sorority from 1946 to 1957.dorothyheight1

In 1957, Height was named president of the National Council of Negro Women, a position she held until 1997. During the height of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, she organized “Wednesdays in Mississippi,” which brought together black and white women from the North and South to create a dialogue of understanding. Height was also a founding member of the Council for United Civil Rights Leadership. In his autobiography, civil rights leader James Farmer described Height as one of the “Big Six” of the Civil Rights Movement, but noted that her role was frequently ignored by the press due to sexism.

Dorothy_Height,_president_of_the_National..._-_NARA_-_196283
Dorothy Height with Eleanor Roosevelt, 1960

American leaders regularly took her counsel, including First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.[clarification needed] Height encouraged President Dwight D. Eisenhower to desegregate schools and President Lyndon B. Johnson to appoint African-American women to positions in government. In the mid-1960s, she wrote a column called “A Woman’s Word” for the weekly African-American newspaper the New York Amsterdam News, and her first column appeared in the issue of March 20, 1965, on page 8.

Height served on a number of committees, including as a consultant on African affairs to the Secretary of State, the President’s Committee on the Employment of the Handicapped, and the President’s Committee on the Status of Women. In 1974, she was named to the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, which published the Belmont Report[10] a response to the infamous “Tuskegee Syphilis Study” and an international ethical touchstone for researchers to this day.

Later life and death

In 1990, Height, along with 15 other African Americans, formed the African-American Women for Reproductive Freedom.[11] Height was recognized by Barnard for her achievements as an honorary alumna during the college’s commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 2004.

Dorothy_I._Height_Building
The Dorothy I. Height Building, headquarters of the National Council of Negro Women, located on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C.

The musical stage play If This Hat Could Talk, based on her memoirs Open Wide The Freedom Gates, debuted in 2005. The work showcases her unique perspective on the civil rights movement and details many of the behind-the-scenes figures and mentors who shaped her life, including Mary McLeod Bethune and Eleanor Roosevelt.

Height was the chairperson of the Executive Committee of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, the largest civil rights organization in the USA. She was an honored guest at the inauguration of President Barack Obama on January 20, 2009, and was seated on the stage.[1]

She attended the National Black Family Reunion, celebrated on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., every year until her death in 2010.

On March 25, 2010, Height was admitted to Howard University Hospital in Washington D.C. for unspecified reasons. She died three weeks later, on April 20, 2010, at the age of 98. Her funeral service at the Washington National Cathedral on April 29, 2010 was attended by President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama, as well as many other dignitaries and notable people.[12] She was later interred at Fort Lincoln Cemetery in Colmar Manor, Maryland.

Personal life

According to a family history DNA analysis performed by African Ancestry Inc.,[13] Height’s maternal line has a root among the Temne people of modern-day Sierra Leone.

Awards and honors

READ MORE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Height

 

 

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