Racial Injustice

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Vesey-Jail
Vesey Jail.

May 30th, 1822

Denmark Vesey’s Rebellion Against Slavery Uncovered

Denmark Vesey spent his childhood traveling throughout the Caribbean as an enslaved black servant of a white sea captain, then worked for the captain as a house servant in Charleston, South Carolina. Mr. Vesey eventually started a family, fathered three children and, in 1799, purchased his freedom with $1500 won in a lottery. His family remained enslaved.

Over the next decade, Mr. Vesey worked as a carpenter and co-founded an African Methodist Episcopal church. In 1820, Charleston authorities ordered the closure of Mr. Vesey’s church. Angered by the closure, fed up with the continued enslavement of his children, and inspired by the Haitian Revolution of 1791, Mr. Vesey began planning a rebellion to free enslaved black people in Charleston. The attack was planned for the second week of July 1822.

Mr. Vesey modeled his plan after the Haitian Revolution by exhorting his followers to kill their masters, free other enslaved blacks in the city, and sail to Haiti before whites could retaliate. On May 30, 1822, the plan was foiled when a black house servant named George Wilson informed his master of the pending revolt. Charleston authorities promptly arrested and interrogated dozens of suspected conspirators. Mr. Vesey was captured on June 22 and tortured but he refused to identify his comrades.

A total of 131 men was arrested; 67 were convicted and 35, including Denmark Vesey, were executed. The city destroyed Mr. Vesey’s church building. Mr. Vesey and his followers inspired abolitionists and black soldiers through the Civil War.

© 2014 Equal Justice Initiative | 122 Commerce Street, Montgomery, Alabama 36104 | 334.269.1803

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Cincinnati

June 30th, 1829

Cincinnati, Ohio, Enforces Laws to Drive Out Black Population

On June 30, 1829, officials in Cincinnati, Ohio, issued a notice requiring black residents to adhere to laws passed in 1804 and 1807 aimed at preventing “fugitive slaves” and freed blacks from settling in Ohio.

The 1804 law required every black person in Ohio to obtain proof of freedom and to register with the clerk’s office in his or her county of residence. It also prohibited employers from hiring a black person without proof of freedom, imposed a fine on those who hid fugitive slaves, and provided to any person asserting “a legal claim” to a black person a procedure for “retaking and possessing his or her black or mulatto servant.” The 1807 amendments to the law required black people seeking residence in Cincinnati to post $500 bond guaranteed by two white men. In addition to increasing fines for employing a black person without proof of freedom and assisting fugitive slaves, the 1807 amendments prohibited black people from testifying in court against whites.

The 1804 law and 1807 amendment failed to stem the growth of Ohio’s black population and by 1829 blacks represented at least 10 percent of Cincinnati’s population. In another attempt to discourage black residence in Cincinnati, officials posted a notice informing the public that the 1807 law would be “rigidly enforced” and warning against helping any black person in violation of the law. The notice effectively sanctioned mob violence against the black community, stating, “The full cooperation of the public is expected in carrying these laws into full effect.”

Recognizing the notice as a threat, hundreds of black people organized, requested, and were granted asylum in Canada. Those who remained were targeted with mob violence by whites.

© 2014 Equal Justice Initiative | 122 Commerce Street, Montgomery, Alabama 36104 | 334.269.1803

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German-Coast-Uprising
German Coast Uprising

January 8th, 1811

Largest Slave Insurrection in U.S. History Begins in Louisiana

On January 8, 1811, Charles Deslondes led a rebellion of some 500 enslaved black people in New Orleans, Louisiana, in what became known as the German Coast Uprising.

After black people in Haiti won their independence from the French in 1804 following a thirteen-year war, surviving white planters relocated from Haiti to Orleans Territory, now the State of Louisiana. Many brought with them enslaved black laborers, including Charles Deslondes, who had been born into slavery in Haiti. Orleans Territory’s black population tripled between 1803 and 1811, leaving whites fearful of a black rebellion.

In early January 1811, Charles Deslondes convened a meeting of enslaved black people to plan an anti-slavery rebellion in New Orleans. The rebellion began on January 8, 1811, with a plantation attack that left one white man dead. The rebels then traveled along the Mississippi River, attacking plantations and recruiting more fighters. Some enslaved blacks joined the rebels, while others warned their masters and tried to avert plantation attacks. Many whites escaped across the river.

On January 11, a militia of white planters confronted the rebels in a brief battle, killing many and forcing others to flee. Deslondes and his supporters were captured. Some were returned to their plantations; others were tried and executed, their corpses publicly displayed as warning against future uprisings. The final death toll included two whites and ninety-five blacks. The territorial legislature later voted to financially compensate whites whose enslaved black laborers had been killed.

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Appeal
Appeal

November 15th, 1830

North Carolina Passes Laws to Limit Access to David Walker’s Anti-Slavery Pamphlet

On September 28, 1829, David Walker, a free African American abolitionist and activist living in Boston, Massachusetts, published An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, a radical, militant anti-slavery pamphlet advocating for racial equality and calling for free and enslaved blacks to actively challenge injustice, racial oppression, and the institution of slavery.

Mr. Walker exhorted enslaved people to “lay aside abject servility” and to unite and rebel against their masters. The Appeal was the first published document to demand the immediate and uncompensated emancipation of slaves in America. Mr. Walker also indirectly targeted his pamphlet to whites, urging them to cease their inhumane treatment of slaves and warning that “your destruction is at hand, and will be speedily consummated unless you repent.” The pamphlet was quickly and clandestinely circulated among blacks, especially in the South, inciting anger among many whites.

The response was swift and harsh. Jacob Cowan, a literate enslaved man in North Carolina, was sold “down river” to Alabama after he was caught with 200 copies of the pamphlet for distribution to other enslaved people in the community. Copies of the pamphlet found by Southern officials were destroyed, the State of Georgia offered a bounty for Mr. Walker’s capture, and several Southern states passed laws to further oppress both enslaved and free black people.

On November 15, 1830, North Carolina passed two laws designed to limit the influence of the pamphlet and discourage its dissemination. An Act to Prevent the Circulation of Seditious Publications banned bringing into the state any publication with the tendency to inspire revolution or resistance among enslaved or free black people; a first violation of the law was punishable by whipping and one year imprisonment, while those convicted of a second offense would “suffer death without benefit of clergy.”

The second law forbid all persons in the state from teaching the enslaved to read and write. A white person convicted of violating the law would be subject to a $100 to $200 fine or imprisonment; a free black person would face a fine, imprisonment, or between twenty and thirty-nine lashes; and an enslaved black person convicted of teaching other slaves to read or write would receive thirty-nine lashes.

Mr. Walker’s Appeal had significant impact and is widely credited with turning the abolitionist movement in a more radical direction and setting the stage for later insurrections, such as Nat Turner’s 1831 rebellion in Virginia.

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Turner
Turner

August 21st, 1831

Nat Turner Leads Enslaved Black People in Virginia Rebellion

Nat Turner was an enslaved black man who lived in Southampton, Virginia. By many accounts, Turner was a very religious man who ministered to fellow enslaved blacks as well as whites. Turner studied the Bible fervently and often claimed to have divine visions. In the late 1820s, Turner claimed to have several visions leading him to believe that God was calling him to lead a rebellion. In February 1831, he witnessed a solar eclipse and interpreted it as a sign to start his campaign. Turner and his followers planned to rebel on July 4, 1831, but postponed the plan. On August 13, 1831, Turner witnessed a second eclipse and believe it to be yet another sign to begin the rebellion.

On August 21, 1831, Turner led his most trusted followers to various plantations, recruiting other blacks, until their ranks swelled to between 60 and 70 fighters armed with muskets and tools. As the rebels moved, they indiscriminately killed white plantation owners, but seemed to spare poor whites. Turner and his followers killed nearly 60 whites before they were confronted and defeated by a militia. Turner’s men were killed or captured immediately, but he escaped and remained at large until October 30, 1831. Upon capture, Turner was criminally convicted and executed along with 30 other blacks convicted of insurrection. In the wake of the rebellion, angry white mobs tortured and murdered hundreds of blacks and Southern legislatures passed laws prohibiting blacks from assembling freely, conducting independent religious services, and gaining an education.

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ban blacks
Ban Blacks

January 17th, 1834

Alabama Legislature Bans Free Black People from Living in the State

On January 17, 1834, the Alabama State Legislature passed Act 44 as part of a series of increasingly restrictive laws governing the behavior of free and enslaved blacks within the state.

In the immediate aftermath of the infamous Nat Turner slave rebellion in Virginia, Alabama passed a statute in 1833 that made it unlawful for free blacks to settle in Alabama. That statute provided that freed blacks found in Alabama would be given thirty days to vacate the state. After thirty days, the freed slave could be subject to a penalty of thirty-nine lashes and receive an additional twenty-day period to leave the state. After that period had expired, the free person could be sold back into slavery with proceeds of the sale going to the state and to those who participated in apprehending him.

Act 44 expanded on this legislation by specifying a series of procedures that had to be followed for a slave to be freed within the state. One of the requirements was that emancipation for an enslaved person could take effect only outside of Alabama’s borders. Further, if an emancipated slave returned to Alabama, he could be lawfully captured and sold back into slavery. In fact, Act 44 required sheriffs and other law enforcement officers to actively attempt to apprehend freed slaves who had entered Alabama for any reason.

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Amistad
Amistad

July 1st, 1839

Kidnapped Africans Seize Control Aboard Amistad Slave Ship

Though the United States Congress passed legislation in 1807 banning the importation of enslaved persons, traders continued to transport enslaved Africans into the country. During the early 1800s, many European countries also placed prohibitions on the trafficking of enslaved Africans. In January 1839, a group of Africans from the Mende tribe who had been kidnapped in Sierra Leone by Portuguese traders were sold to Spanish traders Don Jose Ruiz and Don Pedro. Ruiz and Pedro then transported the Africans to Havana, Cuba, on the ship La Amistad. In Cuba, the traders falsely classified the Africans as native Cubans. On June 27, 1839, the Amistad departed for another Cuban city, still carrying 49 of the Africans.

On July 1, 1839, Cinque, a Mende leader aboard La Amistad, used a file to free himself and others from their chains. The captives then revolted, killing the ship’s captain and cook. After taking control of the ship, the Africans demanded that the remaining crew return them to their homeland. The crew deceived the revolters and instead sailed toward the northeastern United States.

On August 24, 1839, American authorities in New York seized the ship. The Africans aboard were arrested and charged with murder. Though murder charges were eventually dropped, a debate arose over the status of the Africans: were they free human beings or enslaved property? Future President John Quincy Adams represented the Africans in litigation to decide that question, and won their release with a ruling from the United States Supreme Court. Many of the Africans died awaiting recognition of their freedom, but in 1841, 35 of the survivors – including Cinque – were returned to their homeland.

(From Mural No. 2, The Court Scene, by Hale Woodruff, 1938, housed in Savery Library at Talladega College in Talladega, Alabama)

 

Pamphlet

March 7th, 1842

Maryland Criminalizes Possession of Anti-Slavery Publications

Black resistance to slavery was active and high profile between 1820 and 1839; during this period, Denmark Vesey’s slave revolt was planned and uncovered in South Carolina; Nat Turner’s sixty-person slave revolt was staged in Virginia; the Underground Railroad began operations that would ultimately help more than 75,000 enslaved black escape bondage; and the Amistad slave ship was taken over by the kidnapped Africans onboard. While these events encouraged critical conversations about the inhumanity of slavery and the need for abolition, they also moved lawmakers and other officials in pro-slavery jurisdictions to work harder to suppress abolitionist sentiment.

On March 7, 1842, Maryland’s General Assembly demonstrated a commitment to maintaining slavery and quelling rebellions when it enacted a law prohibiting free “Negroes” and “mulattoes” from possessing any fliers, pamphlets, newspapers, pictorial representations, “or other papers of an inflammatory character.” The law also forbid the receipt of these items through any post office within the state of Maryland. Violation of the law would be a felony, and those declared guilty would face up to twenty years in prison.

To enforce the law, Maryland residents were asked to alert authorities in their respective communities about African Americans that were in possession of the banned abolitionist materials. Citizens of Maryland who failed to report these violations faced a fine of no less than $500 or no less than sixty days imprisonment in a county jail. County courts and the city of Baltimore’s courts were tasked with informing grand juries of the law and charging them with enforcing it when court was in session.

Oregon

June 26th, 1844

Oregon Territory Bans Free Black People

On June 26, 1844, the legislative committee of the territory then known as “Oregon Country” passed the first of a series of “black exclusion” laws. The law dictated that free African Americans were prohibited from moving into Oregon Country and those who violated the ban could be whipped “not less than twenty nor more than thirty-nine stripes.”

On December 19, 1844, the law was amended to substitute forced labor for whipping. It specified that African Americans who stayed within Oregon would be hired at public auction; the “hirer” would be responsible for removing the “hiree” out of the territory after the prescribed period of forced service was rendered. This law was enforced even though slavery and involuntary servitude were illegal in Oregon Country.

The preamble to a later exclusion law, passed in 1849, explained legislators’ beliefs that “it would be highly dangerous to allow free Negroes and mulattoes to reside in the Territory, or to intermix with Indians, instilling . . . feelings of hostility toward the white race.”

The Oregon Constitution of 1857 included racial exclusion provisions against African Americans and Asian Americans. It barred African Americans outside of Oregon to “come, reside, or be within” the state; prohibited African Americans from owning property or performing contracts; and prescribed punishment for those who employed, “harbor[ed]”, or otherwise helped African Americans.

Between 1840 and 1860, in the midst of this exclusion and discrimination, African Americans never constituted more than 1 percent of the population in the American Pacific Northwest.

convictleasingFeb 4 1846

February 4th, 1846

Alabama Begins Statewide Convict Leasing

The Alabama state legislature voted to construct the first state-run prison on January 26, 1839. In 1841, the Wetumpka State Penitentiary was built in Wetumpka, Alabama. The prison received its first inmate in 1842: a white man sentenced to 20 years for harboring a runaway slave. In the antebellum penitentiary, 99 percent of inmates were white, as free black people were not legally permitted to live in the state, and enslaved black people were instead subject to unregulated “plantation justice” at the hands of slaveowners and overseers.

The penitentiary was supposed to be self-sufficient, but soon proved costly as the prison industries of manufacturing wagons, buggies, saddles, harnesses, shoes, and rope failed to generate enough funds to maintain the facility. On February 4, 1846, the state legislature chose to lease the penitentiary to J.G. Graham, a private businessman, for a six-year term. Graham appointed himself warden and took control of the entire prison and its inmates, claiming all profits made from inmate labor and eliminating every other employment position except physician and inspector. Alabama continued to lease the prison to private businessmen until 1862, when warden/leaser Dr. Ambrose Burrows was murdered by an inmate.

This initial leasing of the prison and its inmates marked the beginning of the convict leasing system in Alabama, and that system was soon renewed. In 1866, after the end of the Civil War, the government again authorized inmates to be leased to work outside of the prison, and 374 prisoners were leased to the firm Smith & McMillen to work rebuilding the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad. In this post-Emancipation society, black people were no longer enslaved, and the convict population that was formerly almost all white was now 90 percent black. The system of convict leasing became one that forced primarily black prisoners – some convicted of minor or trumped up charges – to work in hard, dangerous, conditions for no pay. This practice continued until World War II.

© 2014 Equal Justice Initiative | 122 Commerce Street, Montgomery, Alabama 36104 | 334.269.1803

Missouri

February 16th, 1847

Missouri Prohibits Black Education

On February 16, 1847, the legislature of Missouri passed an act that prohibited “Negroes and mulattoes” from learning to read and write and assembling freely for worship services. The act also forbade the migration of free blacks to the state. The penalty for anyone violating any of the law’s provisions was a fine not to exceed five thousand dollars, a jail term not to exceed six months, or a combination of fine and jail sentence.

The 1847 law supplemented a Missouri law passed in 1825 that imposed various restrictions on free black people. The 1825 law defined a black person as anyone having at least one black grandparent, and made a distinction between those considered full-blooded Negroes and mixed-blooded mulattoes. The 1825 law also prohibited free blacks from keeping or carrying weapons without a special permit and settling in Missouri without a certificate of citizenship from Missouri or another state. Free blacks who migrated to or through Missouri without citizenship documents faced arrest, a court order to leave the state within thirty days, and a punishment of ten lashes. Under the 1825 law, white ship captains and labor bosses were permitted to bring free blacks into the state as workers, though for no longer than six months at a time.

In 1840, nearly 13 percent of Missouri’s population was composed of enslaved black people, while free black people made up less than one percent of the state’s residents. The 1847 law was enacted to place further limitations on the black population and calm fears of a possible rebellion.

Pearl

April 16th, 1848

Enslaved Africans Try to Escape Washington, D.C., Aboard Ship

In mid-nineteenth century Washington, D.C., slavery was legal, pervasive, and a source of significant and growing tension. Abolitionists maintained a forceful presence in business and politics throughout the city and enslaved people escaping bondage in the nation’s capital often fled to Pennsylvania, a free state only eighty miles away.

In 1848, two white abolitionists, Daniel Drayton and Edward Sayres, decided to charter a sixty-four-foot cargo ship nicknamed the Pearl to help enslaved people in the Washington area escape to Pennsylvania. On Saturday, April 15, at least seventy-five enslaved adults and children from Washington, Alexandria, and Georgetown boarded the Pearl and embarked upriver. Saturday was a traditional day of rest for enslaved people and the abolitionists reasoned the escape would not be detected for at least a day.

The plan seemed destined for success until the wind unexpectedly changed direction at the mouth of the Potomac River, forcing the group to anchor and wait for better weather. By Monday, white slave-holding families in the city had been alerted to the escape. Thirty armed men promptly boarded a steamboat and chased down and captured the Pearl while it was still at rest. Mr. Drayton and Mr. Sayres were imprisoned until they were pardoned by President Millard Fillmore in 1852. The escapees were re-enslaved and many were sold to cotton and sugar plantations in the southwest. The escape attempt sparked three days of riots in Washington, as pro-slavery rioters attacked local abolitionists.

© 2014 Equal Justice Initiative | 122 Commerce Street, Montgomery, Alabama 36104 | 334.269.1803

slavedisease

March 17th, 1851

Scientist Discovers “Drapetomania”

In December 1849, the Louisiana State Medical Convention selected Southern physician and pro-slavery advocate Samuel Cartwright to chair a committee tasked with investigating and reporting on diseases unique to African Americans. In March 1851, at the annual meeting of the Louisiana Medical Association, Dr. Cartwright presented a report of the committee’s findings entitled, “A Report on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race.” In the report, Dr. Cartwright claimed blacks were very different physiologically from whites, possessing smaller brains, more sensitive skin, and overdeveloped nervous systems. These unique traits, he claimed, gave black people an especially high propensity for servitude.

Citing “scientific” evidence and scripture, Dr. Cartwright argued that “the Negro is a slave by nature and can never be happy . . . in any other condition.” He invented the term Drapetomania, derived from the Greek words for “runaway slave” and “crazy,” to describe a curable mental disease. When infected, he claimed, enslaved black people were struck with an urge to flee bondage and seek freedom. Dr. Cartwright explained the disease as a mental affliction triggered by masters who unwisely treat their slaves as equals and prescribed severe whipping and amputation of the toes as cures. Couched in pseudo-science and presented as medical assertions, Dr. Cartwright’s report was an effort to justify and defend the institution of slavery as natural and optimal for both master and slave.

Caution_edit

April 3rd, 1851

Thomas Sims, Escaped Slave, Captured in Boston

In 1850, the U.S. Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act, which sought to force Northern officials to apprehend alleged runaway slaves and ensure their return to slavery in the South. Any official who would “hinder or prevent” the arrest of a runaway slave or “harbor or conceal” a fugitive slave faced a fine of $1000 or six months imprisonment. Captured fugitives – as well as the many free blacks who were erroneously captured under the law as runaway slaves – had no right to a trial by jury and could not defend themselves in court.

In early 1851, Thomas Sims, a slave from Savannah, Georgia, successfully escaped and fled to Boston, Massachusetts, where slavery had been abolished. Only a few weeks later, on April 3, 1851, Sims was arrested by a United States Marshal and members of the local police force and taken to the federal courthouse. Fearing riots or an escape attempt, authorities surrounded the courthouse with chains and a heavy police force.

The morning after his capture, attorneys for James Potter, the man who purported to own Sims, presented a complaint to the United States Commissioner. After a short proceeding in which several individuals testified that Sims was the slave who had escaped from Potter’s possession, the Commissioner issued an order remanding Sims back to Georgia. Sims sought review from both the Massachusetts Supreme Court and the United States District Court in Boston, but was unsuccessful. On April 12, Sims left Boston and was returned to Savannah, where he promptly received 39 lashes as punishment for seeking freedom. The marshals who escorted Sims to Georgia received praise and a public dinner for their service.

After the Emancipation Proclamation and in the midst of the Civil War, Thomas Sims again escaped from slavery in 1863, this time fleeing Vicksburg, Mississippi, to return to Boston.

Celia2

June 23rd, 1855

Enslaved Black Woman Kills Her White Rapist; Later Hanged for Murder

In the summer of 1850, Robert Newsom, a sixty-year-old white man, purchased Celia, a fourteen-year-old black girl, from a man in a neighboring county. Before Newsom had even returned to his farm, he raped the enslaved girl, and he continued to do so frequently over the next five years. Newsom regularly came to Celia’s cabin and forced himself on her, and she gave birth to a child in 1855. At some point during the course of this abuse, Celia entered into a relationship with a man named George who was also enslaved by Newsom. When Celia became pregnant again in late winter of 1855, George insisted that she put an end to Newsom’s sexual abuse.

Celia begged Newsom to stop “forcing her while she was

sick” and even appealed to his daughters for help. The assaults continued. On June 23, 1855, Newsom told Celia he was “coming to her cabin” that night. When Newsom arrived and began to lower his face over hers, Celia struck him in the head with a stick. Eventually, Celia realized that Newsom had died from the blow. Not knowing what to do, she disposed of the evidence by cremating the body in her fireplace.

An investigation into Newsom’s disappearance led authorities to question Celia until she admitted to the act. Missouri law at the time allowed a woman who believed she was in “imminent danger of forced sexual intercourse” to be acquitted on a self-defense theory. However, the judge in Celia’s case did not give such an instruction to the jury because, in his view, she was a slave with no right to refuse her “master.”

The jury convicted Celia of first degree murder on October 10, 1855. On December 20, 1855, she was hanged.

Scott
Dred Scott. Oil on canvas by Louis Schultze, 1888. Acc. # 1897.9.1. Missouri Historical Society Museum Collections. Photograph by David Schultz, 1999. NS 23864. Photograph and scan (c) 1999-2006, Missouri Historical Society.

March 6th, 1857

United States Supreme Court Rules Black Americans Are Not Citizens and Cannot Sue

Military physician Dr. John Emerson traveled and resided in several states and territories where slavery was illegal, always accompanied by Dred Scott, an enslaved black man. Dr. Emerson and Mr. Scott eventually returned home to Missouri, where slavery was legal. Dr. Emerson died in 1843, still owning Mr. Scott as a slave.

After Dr. Emerson’s death, Dred Scott and his wife, Harriet, sought freedom in the Missouri state courts. The Scotts argued that their prior residence in free territories had voided their enslavement. The Missouri Supreme Court ruled against the Scotts and authorized Dr. Emerson’s widow, Irene, to continue to own them. When Irene Emerson later gave her estate, including the Scotts, to her brother, John Sandford, Dred Scott brought suit in federal court.

On March 6, 1857, in Dred Scott v. Sandford, the United States Supreme Court dismissed Mr. Scott’s claim on the grounds that he was property and lacked standing to sue in federal court. The Court’s opinion concluded that black people could not be citizens under the United States Constitution because at the time of its signing they had “no rights which the white man was bound to respect.”

The Dred Scott decision further held that the Fifth Amendment did not allow the federal government to deprive a citizen of property, including slaves, without due process of law. This ruling invalidated the Missouri Compromise and re-opened the question of slavery’s expansion into the territories. The resulting uncertainty greatly increased sectional tensions between northern and southern states and pushed the nation forward on the path toward civil war.

Clotilde

July 8th, 1860

The Last Slave Ship Docks in Mobile, Alabama

On July 8, 1860, more than 50 years after Congress banned the importation of slaves into the United States, the Clotilde, a slave ship under the command of Captain William Foster, arrived in Mobile, Alabama, carrying more than 100 enslaved Africans from Ghana. Captain Foster was alleged to be working for Timothy Meaher, a Mobile shipyard owner who built the Clotilde.

Captain Foster evaded capture by federal authorities by transferring the enslaved Africans to a riverboat and burning and then sinking the Clotilde. The Africans smuggled in on the ship were subsequently distributed to those who financed the voyage, with Meaher retaining more than 30 of the Africans on Magazine Point, his property north of Mobile, Alabama. In 1861, Meaher and his partners were prosecuted for illegally importing enslaved Africans into the country but a federal court dismissed the case, citing insufficient evidence to prove that Meaher participated in the scheme.

While the government was investigating Meaher, the Africans who had been taken to his property were left to fend for themselves and provided no means of returning to Ghana. Those men and women settled along the outskirts of Meaher’s property, at a site that came to be known as “Africatown.” Many descendants of those stolen people continue to live in northern Mobile; in 1997, a group of them formed the Africatown Community Mobilization Project to seek recognition of an Africatown Historical District and encourage the restoration and development of the town. In December 2012, the National Park Service added the Africatown Historic District to the National Register of Historic Places.

Minolta DSC
Minolta DSC

April 12th, 1861

The Battle of Fort Sumter: Beginning of the Civil War

In 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede from the United States. As more states followed suit and the Confederacy took shape, many federal installations in the South were taken over by state governments. Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, continued to fly the United States flag, even as Confederate forces surrounded it.

On April 10, 1861, Brigadier General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, in command of the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina, demanded Fort Sumter’s surrender. Union commander Major Robert Anderson refused. On April 12, 1861, Confederate troops opened fire on the fort. On April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter and evacuated the following day. The bombardment of Fort Sumter marked the beginning of the Civil War.

The firing on the fort was the culmination of an emerging conflict in which a small garrison of Union troops in South Carolina found themselves isolated when the state seceded from the Union. The firing on Fort Sumter lasted less than two days and had no great tactical significance, but the symbolism was enormous for both sides. Once Fort Sumter was fired upon, the North and South were officially at war.

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SLAVEMay 1 1863

May 1st, 1863

Confederate Congress Authorizes Enslavement or Execution of Black Troops

On December 24, 1862, Confederate President Jefferson Davis issued orders to the Confederate Army “that all negro slaves captured in arms be at once delivered over to the executive authorities of the respective States to which they belong, to be dealt with according to the law of said States.” A joint resolution adopted by the Confederate Congress and signed by Mr. Davis on May 1, 1863, adjusted this policy to provide that all “negroes or mulattoes, slave or free, taken in arms should be turned over to the authorities in the state in which they were captured and that their officers would be tried by Confederate military tribunals for inciting insurrection and be subject, at the discretion of the court and the president, to the death penalty.”

The treatment of African Americans in Confederate custody varied, depending on location and the capturing commander but atrocities committed against black troops during the Civil War, such as the massacre of surrendering black troops at Fort Pillow, Tennessee, have been well documented.

SLAVEDRAFTNYC

July 13th, 1863

1000 Killed or Injured in New York City Draft Riots

On July 13, 1863, poor white laborers in New York City rioted in protest of the Union draft and a law exempting from the draft all blacks and men able to pay $300 or hire substitutes. Many working class whites already believed the Civil War sacrificed white lives to free black men; the draft law reinforced that belief and reminded poor whites of their precarious social and economic position. The law also signified blacks’ growing political power and the impending exodus of black freedmen to the North. Poor white Northerners feared that exodus would lead to more competition for already scarce jobs and force them into even closer contact with blacks.

On July 11, 1863, the draft began without incident. Two days later, the draft resumed but was quickly disrupted by a mob of working class whites launching a first round of attacks directed at military and government officials. The mob burned down the draft office and beat Police Superintendent John Kennedy nearly to death. As the crowd grew in number and anti-black sentiment, it set its sights on an orphanage for black children. The rioters, which now included women and children, raided the orphanage, taking anything of value and then setting it ablaze. Despite police efforts to extinguish the flames, the orphanage burned to the ground. The mob grew to thousands of angry, violent whites who attacked any black person or business in their path.

By the end of the riots, which by some accounts lasted for several days, more than a thousand people had been killed or injured, most of them black. At least eleven black men were hung and countless homes and businesses were destroyed.

ft-wagner

July 18th, 1863

Black Union Soldiers Lead Attack on Confederate Troops at Fort Wagner

In February 1863, Massachusetts Governor John Andrew issued the Civil War’s first enlistment call for black soldiers. More than 1000 men from Massachusetts and other states volunteered to serve, including Frederick Douglass’s sons, Charles and Lewis. Governor Andrew selected Colonel Robert Shaw, a young white officer, to lead the nation’s first black infantry unit.

From the outset, the men of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry were treated differently than their white counterparts, receiving $7 less weekly pay than white soldiers. It is reported that, as a protest against this inequity, the entire infantry refused to accept any pay until black soldiers received the same wages as white soldiers. Wage inequities between black and white soldiers persisted for the duration of the Civil War.

On July 18, 1863, the 54th prepared to storm South Carolina’s Fort Wagner, which guarded the Port of Charleston. Colonel Shaw assembled 600 soldiers, waited just outside Fort Wagner’s fortified walls, and led the men over the walls at nightfall. Colonel Shaw and the Union generals had underestimated the number of Confederate soldiers waiting inside the fort, and the men of the 54th were outnumbered and outgunned. More than 200 Union soldiers, including Colonel Shaw, were killed. As a sign of disrespect, Confederate soldiers unceremoniously dumped the fallen soldiers’ bodies in a single unmarked grave.

Despite the Union’s loss at Fort Wagner, Confederate troops abandoned the site soon after the battle. The 54th Massachusetts Infantry continued to fight for the Union and participated in a series of successful military operations in Georgia and South Carolina before the Confederacy surrendered in 1865.

fayette1865-02-24

February 24th, 1865

Slavery in Border-State Kentucky

Kentucky, a border state, remained in the Union but the state’s legislature did not fully support President Abraham Lincoln or his Republican administration because lawmakers worried that Lincoln would abolish slavery. Throughout 1861, Lincoln assured Kentuckians he had no intention of interfering with the state’s “domestic institutions.” In March 1862, Lincoln proposed a plan of gradual emancipation for the border states, offering to compensate slaveholders who released their slaves. When the congressional delegations for the border states turned down that offer, Lincoln issued a draft Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862 and signed the final version on January 1, 1863.

Kentucky legislators opposed all efforts to abolish slavery, and on February 24, 1865, the Kentucky General Assembly rejected the Thirteenth Amendment. Prominent politicians and other public figures harshly criticized President Lincoln and members of Congress, and the Kentucky legislature expressed their disapproval of the amendment’s adoption by politically siding with the former Confederacy throughout the post-Civil War era. Kentucky did not officially adopt the Thirteenth Amendment until 1976.

SLAVEOrphans

November 22nd, 1865

Mississippi Authorizes “Sale” of Black Orphans

After the physical and economic devastation of the Civil War, Southern states faced the daunting task of rebuilding with the young white male population drastically reduced by war-time casualties and, due to emancipation, without the enslaved black labor supply on which the entire region had been built. In response, some Southern state legislatures passed race-specific laws to establish new forms of labor relations between black workers and white “employers” that ostensibly complied with the letter of the law while re-creating the involuntary, master-slave relationship.

The Mississippi legislature on November 22, 1865, passed “An Act to regulate the relation of master and apprentice, as relates to freedmen, free negroes, and mulattoes.” Under the law, sheriffs, justices of the peace, and other county civil officers were authorized and required to identify all minor black children in their jurisdictions who were orphans or whose parents could not properly care for them. Once identified, the local probate court was required to “apprentice” black children to white “masters or mistresses” until age 18 for girls and age 21 for boys.

Though not required to pay a wage to the children, whites were required to pay a fee to the county for the apprentice arrangement and the children’s former owners were to be given preference. The law purportedly required white “masters” to provide their apprentices with education, medical care, food, and clothing but also re-established many of the more notorious features of slavery, including authorizing white masters to “re-capture” any apprentice who left their employment without consent, and threatened children with criminal punishment for refusing to return to work.

SLAVEConvict-Leasing

November 24th, 1865

Mississippi Criminalizes Unemployment and Assembly by Free Blacks

Shortly after the end of the Civil War in 1865, Southern states sought to control and confine their large populations of newly-freed black people by passing laws that authorized their arrest and incarceration. These laws, known as “black codes,” typically applied only to black people and criminalized acts that were not offenses at all when committed by whites.

In November and December 1865, the Mississippi legislature approved numerous black codes. One passed on November 24, 1865, declared that “all freedmen, free negroes and mulattoes” found without proof of employment or business or found “unlawfully assembling themselves” would be deemed vagrants and, upon conviction, owe up to $50 in fines and serve up to ten days in jail. The same law threatened whites with vagrancy convictions if found assembling or associating with freedmen “on terms of equality” or found “living in adultery” with a black partner. If convicted, whites faced up to $200 in fines and up to six months in jail.

As a result of black codes like these in Mississippi, and similar laws passed during the same period in states throughout the South, the post-Civil War era brought American black people more contact with the criminal court and prison systems than ever before. As the former Confederacy learned to wield the criminal justice system as a tool of racial control, countless black men, women, and children were convicted and sentenced under unjust laws that criminalized them for existing as free, black citizens.

SLAVECONTRACTDec 19 1865

December 19th, 1865

South Carolina Requires Blacks to Enter into Contracts with White “Masters”

Following the Civil War and emancipation, many freed black people in the South remained beholden to their former white masters. In South Carolina and other former slaveholding states, many freed people continued to reside in the same communities, sometimes on the same land, working for whites who had previously purported to own the men, women, and children as property. Freedmen had limited opportunities to earn money to support themselves and their families and often continued to work as manual laborers in slavery-like conditions. In many ways, “black codes” enacted following emancipation sought to maintain white control over freedmen and perpetuated the exploitation black people had experienced during slavery.

South Carolina’s black codes, like others, contained many laws that applied only to black people. One measure restored freed blacks’ subservient social relationship to white landowners, stating that “all persons of color who make contracts for service or labor, shall be known as servants, and those with whom they contract, shall be known as masters.” The law required black “servants” to work from dawn to dusk and to maintain a “polite” demeanor. South Carolina reached even further into black laborers’ personal lives, prohibiting apprentices to marry without their masters’ permission, forbidding farmers living on their masters’ land to have visitors, and imposing a curfew. Another black code sought to restrict the upward mobility of the black community by forbidding freedmen in South Carolina from pursuing any occupation other than laborer unless able to pay a $100 fee.

SLAVE WHIPPEDOct 29 1869

October 29th, 1869

White Mob Kidnaps and Whips Black Georgia Legislator for Promoting Equal Rights

Abram Colby was born into slavery in Greene County, Georgia, in approximately 1817. The son of an enslaved black woman and a white landowner, Colby was emancipated 15 years before the end of American slavery and worked tirelessly to organize freed slaves following the Civil War. A Radical Republican, Colby was elected to serve in the Georgia House of Representatives during Reconstruction. His impassioned advocacy for black civil rights earned him the attention of the local Ku Klux Klan, a terrorist organization founded in 1865 to resist Reconstruction and restore white supremacy through targeted violence against black people and their white political allies.

Klansmen attacked and brutally whipped 52-year-old Abram Colby on October 29, 1869. Three years later, when called to Washington, DC, to testify about the assault before a Congressional committee investigating reports of racial violence in the South, Colby bravely identified his attackers as some of the “first class men in our town. One is a lawyer, one a doctor, and some are farmers.” Shortly before the attack, Colby explained, the men had tried to bribe him to change parties or give up his office. Colby refused to do either and days later they returned:

On October 29. 1869, [the Klansmen] broke my door open, took me out of bed, took me to the woods and whipped me three hours or more and left me for dead. They said to me, “Do you think you will ever vote another damned Radical ticket?” I said, “If there was an election tomorrow, I would vote the Radical ticket.” They set in and whipped me a thousand licks more, with sticks and straps that had buckles on the ends of them.

Colby told the committee that the attack had “broken something inside of [him],” and that the Klan’s continued harassment and violent assaults had forced him to abandon his re-election campaign. Colby testified most emotionally about the attack’s impact on his daughter, who was home when the Klansmen seized him to be whipped: “My little daughter begged them not to carry me away. They drew up a gun and actually frightened her to death. She never got over it until she died. That was the part that grieves me the most.”

 

 

 

 

 

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It is imperative to teach children about the historical accomplishments and struggles of the Black race.  We must be creative in the way we introduce Black History to them, it is never too early to start the dialogue.  ~CAB~

Links to get you started:

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Conscious quotes

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I am a Negro: Black as the night is black, Black like the depths of my Africa.

Langston Hughes, Negro

passtruthtonextgeneration

The Black skin is not a badge of shame,
but rather a glorious symbol of national greatness.
– Marcus Garvey

A people without the knowledge of their past history,
origin and culture is like a tree without roots.
– Marcus Garvey

Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery.
None but ourselves can free our minds.

A child born to a Black mother in a state like Mississippi… has exactly the same rights as a white baby born to the wealthiest person in the United States. It’s not true, but I challenge anyone to say it is not a goal worth working for.
Thurgood Marshall

How hard a thing is life to the lowly and yet how human and real is it? And all this life and love and strife and failure, — is it the twilight of nightfall or the flush of some faint-dawning day? The answer lies in each of us. For somewhere in your past … somewhere some 100 years ago?there rose from the smoldering ashes of slavery?a proud and humble family who suffered and struggled with life. A family who found the strength to endure all the indignities of life in America, and that family had the hope for a taste of her bounties in the future.

W. E. B. Dubois, The Souls of Black Folk
langston hughes1

It is time for parents to teach young people early on that in diversity there is beauty and there is strength. We all should know that diversity makes for a rich tapestry, and we must understand that all the treads of that tapestry are equal in value no matter their color.

Maya Angelou
 ❤ ❤ ❤           ❤ ❤ ❤              ❤ ❤ ❤               ❤ ❤ ❤           ❤ ❤ ❤
Negro blood is sure powerful ? because just one drop of black blood makes a colored man. One drop ? you are a Negro! . . . Black is powerful.

Langston Hughes, Simple Takes a Wife
Not all black men are willing to commit race suicide and to abhor their race for the companionship of another. There are hundreds of millions of us black men who are proud of our skins, and to us the African Empire will not be a Utopia, neither will it be dangerous, nor fail to serve our best interests, because we realize that, like the leopard, we cannot change our skins, and so long as black is black, and white is white, the black man shall occupy a position of inferiority depending upon the justice of the great white race to lead and direct him. No race in the world is so just as to give to others a square deal in things economical, political, social and otherwise.

Marcus Garvey
The outside world told black kids when I was growing up that we weren’t worth anything. But our parents said it wasn’t so, and our churches and our schoolteachers said it wasn’t so. They believed in us, and we, therefore, believed in ourselves.

Marian Wright Edelman

Modern Day Slavery – Injustice

Presented by: Carol Boeth
Presented by: Carol Boeth

To think in the 21st century Black people are still enslaved, this is taking place within the judicial system.  America jail / prison system are privatized, hence, modern day slavery continues with mass black incarceration.

INJUSTICE IN 21ST CENTURY

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CLEVELAND, Ohio – Ricky Jackson and Wiley Bridgeman walked out of the hell known as the Ohio prison system Friday, exonerated of a horrific slaying that they didn’t commit.

Image: Kwame Ajamu, Wylie Bridgeman
Ronnie Bridgeman, right, now known as Kwame Ajamu, hugs his brother, Wylie Bridgeman, after charges were dismissed Tuesday, Dec. 9, 2014, in Cleveland. Ajamu, the last of three men convicted in the 1975 slaying of an Ohio businessman, had his charges dismissed. Ajamu was 17 when he was convicted in the shooting death of Harry Franks outside a corner store in Cleveland. Ajamu was released from prison in January 2003 after 27 years behind bars. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)

Heart breaking to watch an innocent individual who was jailed for 28 years cry and then the jubilation when heard he was exonerated.  There is certainly injustice in this world, especially when indirected to our black men.

Read More:  http://www.cleveland.com/court-justice/index.ssf/2014/12/judge_ronnie_bridgeman_prison.html

Continue reading Modern Day Slavery – Injustice

Jamaica Black History

carolbhttgf1
Presented by: Carol Boeth

It is imperative to research, teach and  reflect on Black History.  Make it your responsibility to get Black History to the world. ~cab~

JAMAICA NATIONAL HEROES

SAM SHARPE​ Sharpe was knowledgeable and intelligent and probably knew it was unlikely that the strike would succeed, so he had made military preparations for the rebellion. This uprising, which began on 28 December 1831, starting in St. James and spreading throughout the entire island, is generally regarded as the greatest (and the last) acts against slavery in Jamaica before it was abolished in August 1833. The Rebellion lasted for eight days and resulted in the death of around 186 Africans and 14 white planters or overseers. The white vengeance for this rebellion was terrible. There were over 750 convictions of rebel slaves, of which 138 were sentenced to death. Some were hanged, their heads cut off and placed in conspicuous parts of their plantations. Most of those who escaped the death sentence were brutally punished and in some cases the punishment was so harsh that they didn't survive. Sam Sharpe was also captured and executed in Market Square (also called the Parade), Montego Bay on 23 May 1832. As he awaited his execution he is recorded to have said 'I would rather die upon yonder gallows than live in slavery'. His opinion was the same as many other enslaved Africans who chose death over a life of slavery. Slave resistance was costing the British government dearly and only one week after the death of Sam Sharpe, Parliament appointed a committee to consider ways of ending slavery. Slavery was ended partially on 1 August 1834 and completely (with the ending of apprenticeship), four years later. In 1975, following independence, Sam Sharpe was made a National Hero and in his honour this square was renamed Sam Sharpe Square.​
SAM SHARPE​
Sharpe was knowledgeable and intelligent and probably knew it was unlikely that the strike would succeed, so he had made military preparations for the rebellion.
This uprising, which began on 28 December 1831, starting in St. James and spreading throughout the entire island, is generally regarded as the greatest (and the last) acts against slavery in Jamaica before it was abolished in August 1833. The Rebellion lasted for eight days and resulted in the death of around 186 Africans and 14 white planters or overseers.
The white vengeance for this rebellion was terrible. There were over 750 convictions of rebel slaves, of which 138 were sentenced to death. Some were hanged, their heads cut off and placed in conspicuous parts of their plantations. Most of those who escaped the death sentence were brutally punished and in some cases the punishment was so harsh that they didn’t survive.
Sam Sharpe was also captured and executed in Market Square (also called the Parade), Montego Bay on 23 May 1832. As he awaited his execution he is recorded to have said ‘I would rather die upon yonder gallows than live in slavery’. His opinion was the same as many other enslaved Africans who chose death over a life of slavery.
Slave resistance was costing the British government dearly and only one week after the death of Sam Sharpe, Parliament appointed a committee to consider ways of ending slavery. Slavery was ended partially on 1 August 1834 and completely (with the ending of apprenticeship), four years later. In 1975, following independence, Sam Sharpe was made a National Hero and in his honour this square was renamed Sam Sharpe Square.​
SIR WILLIAM ALEXANDER CLARKE BUSTAMANTE, born on 24 th February, 1884, came from a mix race family. His father was the white overseer of a plantation and his mother a black woman came from the parish of Hanover. He also founded the Jamaica Labor Party (JLP) and went on to become the first Prime Minister after Jamaica's independence on 6 th August, 1962. He is widely recognized as one of the architects of Jamaica's independence from Great Britain. He died on August 6, 1977.​
SIR WILLIAM ALEXANDER CLARKE BUSTAMANTE,
born on 24 th February, 1884, came from a mix race family.
His father was the white overseer of a plantation and his mother a black woman came from the parish of Hanover. He also founded the Jamaica Labor Party (JLP) and went on to become the first Prime Minister after Jamaica’s independence on 6 th August, 1962.
He is widely recognized as one of the architects of Jamaica’s independence from Great Britain. He died on August 6, 1977.​
NORMAN WASHINGTON MANLEY, born on 4th July, 1893, came from a mix race family. A brilliant lawyer he was admitted to the bar in 1921. Manley is best remembered for his opposing views to his cousin, Alexander Bustamante. In 1940 he founded the People's National Party (PNP), and became the island's 2nd chief minister in 1955. His role in Jamaica's history is diminished because he lost the election in April 1962 to Bustamante, who went on to become the island's first Prime Minister after Jamaica gained independence. Manley died in September 1969.​
NORMAN WASHINGTON MANLEY, born on 4th July, 1893, came from a mix race family. A brilliant lawyer he was admitted to the bar in 1921.
Manley is best remembered for his opposing views to his cousin, Alexander Bustamante. In 1940 he founded the People’s National Party (PNP), and became the island’s 2nd chief minister in 1955.
His role in Jamaica’s history is diminished because he lost the election in April 1962 to Bustamante, who went on to become the island’s first Prime Minister after Jamaica gained independence. Manley died in September 1969.​
Georg William Gordon was a leader of the Maroons at the beginning of the 18th century. She was known by the Maroons and the British colonialists as an outstanding military leader who became, during her lifetime and afterwards, a symbol of unity and strength for her people. Possessing the survival sprit of her own people, the Ashanti from West Africa, she and her five brothers (Cudjoe - also a great Maroon leader, Accompong, Johnny, Cuffy and Quao) escaped from slavery soon after they arrived in Jamaica. Nanny's influence over the Maroons was extremely strong, some even said it was supernatural. She was a powerful and clever leader and she was particularly important to the Maroons when they fought the First Maroon War against the British, who were trying to penetrate the mountains and overpower them. Nanny also passed down her people's traditional legends and encouraged them to continue with the customs, music and songs that had come with them from Africa and that they were proud of. Both her brothers Cudjoe and Quao signed so-called 'peace treaties' with the British in 1739. Nanny is said to have disagreed with their decisions, seeing this as another form of control by the British. She did eventually agree to a truce, but only because she saw that her people were tired of war and wanted peace instead. Nanny and other freedom fighters like her, helped to bring about a quicker end to enslavement because the fear of revolution (as happened in Haiti) became a major factor that pushed the British to abolish slavery.
Georg William Gordon was a leader of the Maroons at the beginning of the 18th century.
She was known by the Maroons and the British colonialists as an outstanding military leader who became, during her lifetime and afterwards, a symbol of unity and strength for her people.
Possessing the survival sprit of her own people, the Ashanti from West Africa, she and her five brothers (Cudjoe – also a great Maroon leader, Accompong, Johnny, Cuffy and Quao) escaped from slavery soon after they arrived in Jamaica. Nanny’s influence over the Maroons was extremely strong, some even said it was supernatural. She was a powerful and clever leader and she was particularly important to the Maroons when they fought the First Maroon War against the British, who were trying to penetrate the mountains and overpower them.
Nanny also passed down her people’s traditional legends and encouraged them to continue with the customs, music and songs that had come with them from Africa and that they were proud of. Both her brothers Cudjoe and Quao signed so-called ‘peace treaties’ with the British in 1739. Nanny is said to have disagreed with their decisions, seeing this as another form of control by the British. She did eventually agree to a truce, but only because she saw that her people were tired of war and wanted peace instead.
Nanny and other freedom fighters like her, helped to bring about a quicker end to enslavement because the fear of revolution (as happened in Haiti) became a major factor that pushed the British to abolish slavery.

JAnationalheroes

Nanny was a leader of the Maroons at the beginning of the 18th century. She was known by the Maroons and the British colonialists as an outstanding military leader who became, during her lifetime and afterwards, a symbol of unity and strength for her people. Possessing the survival sprit of her own people, the Ashanti from West Africa, she and her five brothers (Cudjoe - also a great Maroon leader, Accompong, Johnny, Cuffy and Quao) escaped from slavery soon after they arrived in Jamaica. Nanny's influence over the Maroons was extremely strong, some even said it was supernatural. She was a powerful and clever leader and she was particularly important to the Maroons when they fought the First Maroon War against the British, who were trying to penetrate the mountains and overpower them. Nanny also passed down her people's traditional legends and encouraged them to continue with the customs, music and songs that had come with them from Africa and that they were proud of. Both her brothers Cudjoe and Quao signed so-called 'peace treaties' with the British in 1739. Nanny is said to have disagreed with their decisions, seeing this as another form of control by the British. She did eventually agree to a truce, but only because she saw that her people were tired of war and wanted peace instead. Nanny and other freedom fighters like her, helped to bring about a quicker end to enslavement because the fear of revolution (as happened in Haiti) became a major factor that pushed the British to abolish slavery.
Nanny was a leader of the Maroons at the beginning of the 18th century.
She was known by the Maroons and the British colonialists as an outstanding military leader who became, during her lifetime and afterwards, a symbol of unity and strength for her people.
Possessing the survival sprit of her own people, the Ashanti from West Africa, she and her five brothers (Cudjoe – also a great Maroon leader, Accompong, Johnny, Cuffy and Quao) escaped from slavery soon after they arrived in Jamaica. Nanny’s influence over the Maroons was extremely strong, some even said it was supernatural. She was a powerful and clever leader and she was particularly important to the Maroons when they fought the First Maroon War against the British, who were trying to penetrate the mountains and overpower them.
Nanny also passed down her people’s traditional legends and encouraged them to continue with the customs, music and songs that had come with them from Africa and that they were proud of. Both her brothers Cudjoe and Quao signed so-called ‘peace treaties’ with the British in 1739. Nanny is said to have disagreed with their decisions, seeing this as another form of control by the British. She did eventually agree to a truce, but only because she saw that her people were tired of war and wanted peace instead.
Nanny and other freedom fighters like her, helped to bring about a quicker end to enslavement because the fear of revolution (as happened in Haiti) became a major factor that pushed the British to abolish slavery.
Hon Marcus Garvey stands out in history as one of the greatest black leaders of all time. In the 1930s he preached a message of black self empowerment, and started the 'Back to Africa' movement, which called for all black people of the Diaspora to return to their ancestral African home, and more specifically Ethiopia. He taught self reliance 'at home and abroad' and promoted a 'back to Africa' consciousness, awakening black pride and criticising the 'white' colonial view of the world which was causing black people to feel shame for their African heritage. I n 1914 he set up an organisation called the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which was the biggest black organisation the world had ever seen and which mobilised black activism across the globe and spoke out against economic exploitation and cultural denigration. The One of the biggest ventures that Garvey is remembered for today was setting up a steamship company to buy ships and do business. It was called the Black Star Line and Garvey knew that powerful nations had ships, so building a shipping company was part of building a nation. It was also part of UNIA's self-reliance programme. The Black Star Line would provide employment and make money. It would let different communities trade with each other by carrying goods between the Caribbean, West Africa, and the USA. And the ships would also carry passengers, without any racial discrimination and they would transport people to countries in Africa for resettlement. Today Marcus Garvey is honoured as one of Jamaica's National Heroes, and his significance is felt worldwide
Hon Marcus Garvey stands out in history as one of the greatest black leaders of all time. In the 1930s he preached a message of black self empowerment, and started the ‘Back to Africa’ movement, which called for all black people of the Diaspora to return to their ancestral African home, and more specifically Ethiopia. He taught self reliance ‘at home and abroad’ and promoted a ‘back to Africa’ consciousness, awakening black pride and criticising the ‘white’ colonial view of the world which was causing black people to feel shame for their African heritage. I
n 1914 he set up an organisation called the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which was the biggest black organisation the world had ever seen and which mobilised black activism across the globe and spoke out against economic exploitation and cultural denigration.
The One of the biggest ventures that Garvey is remembered for today was setting up a steamship company to buy ships and do business. It was called the Black Star Line and Garvey knew that powerful nations had ships, so building a shipping company was part of building a nation. It was also part of UNIA’s self-reliance programme. The Black Star Line would provide employment and make money. It would let different communities trade with each other by carrying goods between the Caribbean, West Africa, and the USA. And the ships would also carry passengers, without any racial discrimination and they would transport people to countries in Africa for resettlement.
Today Marcus Garvey is honoured as one of Jamaica’s National Heroes, and his significance is felt worldwide
Paul Bogle was born before the abolition of slavery, sometime between 1815 and 1820. He grew up when slavery was ending, believing in the teachings of the Bible and was generally thought of as a peaceful and kind man. Even after slavery was abolished, there was no real freedom for the black men and women living in Jamaica. They were not given rights to fair trials, to own land or to vote. They were made to pay very high taxes and continued to be punished badly by colonialists and planters. Paul Bogle did own land - about 500 acres, and he could read, write and vote. One day in 1865, two men were on trial in the Morant Bay Court House and Paul Bogle together with some of his people went to support them. Events that took place at that trial led to the Morant Bay Rebellion, lead by Paul Bogle. The Government sent troops to put down the rebellion and they burnt thousands of houses and many of Paul Bogle's people were killed or hurt. Eventually Paul Bogle was captured and taken to Morant Bay where he was put on trial. He was found guilty and hanged at the Court House on October 24, 1865, along with four hundred and thirty-eight other people. However this demonstration did achieve its objectives. It paved the way towards the establishment of fairer practice in the courts and it brought about a change in official attitude which made the social and economic betterment of the people possible. Paul Bogle was named one of Jamaica's national heroes because he died for what he believed was right.
Paul Bogle
was born before the abolition of slavery, sometime between 1815 and 1820. He grew up when slavery was ending, believing in the teachings of the Bible and was generally thought of as a peaceful and kind man.
Even after slavery was abolished, there was no real freedom for the black men and women living in Jamaica. They were not given rights to fair trials, to own land or to vote. They were made to pay very high taxes and continued to be punished badly by colonialists and planters. Paul Bogle did own land – about 500 acres, and he could read, write and vote.
One day in 1865, two men were on trial in the Morant Bay Court House and Paul Bogle together with some of his people went to support them. Events that took place at that trial led to the Morant Bay Rebellion, lead by Paul Bogle.
The Government sent troops to put down the rebellion and they burnt thousands of houses and many of Paul Bogle’s people were killed or hurt. Eventually Paul Bogle was captured and taken to Morant Bay where he was put on trial. He was found guilty and hanged at the Court House on October 24, 1865, along with four hundred and thirty-eight other people.
However this demonstration did achieve its objectives. It paved the way towards the establishment of fairer practice in the courts and it brought about a change in official attitude which made the social and economic betterment of the people possible. Paul Bogle was named one of Jamaica’s national heroes because he died for what he believed was right.http://www.youtube.comhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Jf1wwlE2RY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Education

carolbhttgf1
Presented by: Carol Boeth

Niagara Movement

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/w-e-b-du-bois

womens right

NOW IT IS PROVEN, FOR THOSE WHO THINK OTHERWISE, HERE IS YOUR PROOF. THE ORIGINAL BLOND PEOPLE. http://originalpeople.org/scientists-find-south-sea-islanders-blond-hair-didnt-come-from-europeans-but-evolved-separately/

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Black History Images, White-washed!

whitewash

Repost from: Runoko Rashidi added 2 new photos.

This piece sits atop a fountain in the canton of Schaffhausen, Switzerland near the border with Germany. The fountain itself is called the Mohenbrunnen or the Moor’s Fountain. Apparently the original (shown below) was done in 1609. It is a depiction of Caspar, one of the three wise kings in Christian tradition who came to the manger in Bethlehem to pay homage to the Christ child. Personally, it reminds me more of St. Maurice. The images were sent to me by Jay Knucklez.

Black History Canada

Jackie Robinson

Baseball was a White man’s game for 100 years. That changed forever in 1946 when the Montreal Royals signed Jackie Robinson, the first professional Black baseball player in the major leagues.

jackierobinson
Jackie Robinson

The Royals, of the International League, was the AAA farm team of the Brooklyn Dodgers. President and owner of the Dodgers, Branch Rickey, chose Montreal as the test site for the bold move, saying that he thought of Robinson as a ball player first and that it was a point of fairness.

News that the team had signed Robinson was met by a storm of controversy and on tour he was subjected to threats and jeers. Critics expressed doubt, saying Robinson was too muscular to be a good hitter. Robinson played his first game for the Royals on April 18, 1946 in Jersey City, NJ, and played the kind of game that would make him legendary, driving in four runs with four hits, including a three-run homer, and stealing two bases. The Royals won 14-1.

Robinson proved on the field and off that Black players were as deserving of the major leagues as anyone. He helped the Royals win the “Little World Series” in the single year he played for the team, after which he was promoted to the Dodgers. He retired from the game in 1957. Jackie Robinson died in 1972.

jackie-robinson-stealing-home
Jackie Robinson

The Historica Minute Jackie Robinson dramatizes significant moments in Robinson’s life. Apply what you understand about Robinson as you view the vignette.

Africans
The last paragraph of this article focuses on contemporary artistic movements in Canada’s Black community. From The Canadian Encyclopedia.

 

SOURCE: http://blackhistorycanada.ca/arts.php?themeid=22&id=7

Mary Ann Shadd

Born to free parents in Wilmington, Delaware, Mary Ann Shadd was the eldest of 13 children. She was educated by Quakers and later taught throughout the northeastern states. Following in the footsteps of her activist parents, who were part of the Underground Railroad, Shadd pursued the path taken by those heading north to freedom in Canada.

Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd

Settling in Windsor, she wrote educational booklets outlining the advantages of Canada for settlers willing to work and the need for living within one’s means. She set up an integrated school in Windsor that was open to all who could afford to attend (education was not publicly provided at that time). She moved to St. Catharines and then Toronto, where she met and married widower Thomas Cary. To promote information about the successes of Black people living in freedom in Canada, she began the Provincial Freeman newspaper, becoming the first Black woman in North America to publish a newspaper, although at first she had to have a man stand in for her as the apparent publisher.

Prior to returning to the US, Shadd obtained Canadian citizenship. In 1851, she was the only woman to attend the First Convention of Colored Freemen held outside of the US. Then she worked as a recruitment agent to support the Union side during the American Civil War. Shadd moved to Washington, DC, where she taught, then pursued law studies and became the first Black woman to complete this degree at Howard University. She joined efforts to gain women’s suffrage (the vote) and was herself the first Black woman to vote in a national election.

shaddm

 
Mary Ann Shadd
Detailed biography of Black Canadian activist Mary Ann Shadd. From the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online.

Viola Desmond

Born and raised in Halifax, Viola Desmond trained as a teacher but soon joined her husband Jack Desmond in a combined barbershop and hairdressing salon, a beauty parlour on Gottingen Street. While expanding her business across the province, Viola went to New Glasgow in 1946.

violadesmond
Viola Desmond

In New Glasgow, Desmond developed car trouble and decided to go to the movies while repairs were made. She bought a ticket, entered the theatre and took a seat on the main floor, unaware that tickets sold to African Canadians in this town were for the balcony and the main floor was reserved solely for White patrons. Theatre staff demanded that she go to the balcony, but she refused, since she could see better from the main floor. The police were summoned immediately and she was dragged out, which injured her hip. She was charged and held overnight in jail; she was not advised of her rights.

Maintaining her dignity, Desmond remained sitting upright, wearing her white gloves (a sign of sophistication and class at the time). The following morning, despite not having done anything wrong, she paid the imposed fine of $20. Besides being fined, she was charged with defrauding the Government of Nova Scotia of the difference in the tax between a ground floor and a balcony seat, which amounted to one cent.

While discussing the incident with the doctor who tended to her, Desmond decided to fight the charges. Clearly, the issue was about her being African Canadian and there being a racist seating policy in place; it was not about tax evasion. In taking the matter to the courts, Viola Desmond’s experience helped to galvanize public opinion locally and internationally, and to raise awareness about the reality of Canadian segregation.
Viola Desmond didn’t set out to make history, but she did
An article about Viola Desmond’s legal battle for racial equality in Nova Scotia. From octopusbooks.ca.

John Alleyne

Born in Barbados in 1960, John Alleyne came Toronto with his family in 1965. He trained at the National Ballet School in Toronto. After graduating in 1978, he joined the Stuttgart Ballet, where he began to choreograph balletic works including Phases and his first commissioned work, Weiderkehr (1985). Alleyne returned to Toronto from Germany in 1984 and joined the National Ballet of Canada. He served as resident choreographer 1988-1991 and created several works, including Blue-Eyed Trek and Interrogating Slam.

Alleyne
Image: John Alleyne in The Four Temperaments (1986) (photo by David Street, courtesy of The National Ballet of Canada)

Alleyne began choreographing for the British Columbia Ballet in the late 1980s and was appointed the company’s artistic director in 1992. He is credited with raising the profile of Ballet British Columbia through his highly technical and unique interpretations of traditional ballet performance. Works such as Go Slow Walter (1990), Boy Wonder (1997), Orpheus (2003) Scheherazade (2002), Carmina Burana (2004) and Rite of Spring (2005) earned Alleyne exposure on an international scale, including New York City Ballet’s Diamond Project, and the San Francisco Ballet’s celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the United Nations—UNited We Dance.

Among John Alleyne’s many honours have been a Dora Mavor Moore Award (1992), a Harry Jerome Award from the Black Business and Professional Association (1993), the Exceptional Achievement Award in the Performing Arts from the Black Historical and Cultural Society of British Columbia (2005) and an honorary doctorate of fine arts from Simon Fraser University (2003).

Nathaniel Dett

Nathaniel Dett was born in Drummondville, Ontario, the child of freedom seekers—those who came to Canada on the Underground Railroad. He began piano lessons in 1901, attending Oberlin Conservatory by 1904. Dett was awarded a Bachelor of Music degree with honors. He studied at Harvard, the American Conservatory (Fontainebleau) and the Eastman School of Music (Rochester) earning a Master of Music degree by 1932.

Dett
Image: Nathaniel Dett (courtesy Library and Archives Canada/nlc-8931)

Dett’s choral training at a Black college in Hampton, Virginia, in 1913 seems to have most influenced his musical career, which was marked by many performances at several prestigious venues including Carnegie Hall, Boston Symphony Hall and the Philadelphia Academy of Music. He taught at the Hampton Institute 1913-32 and became the institute’s Director of Music by 1926. He was the first Black person to gain this position and was the first African-American to be awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Music by Oberlin Conservatory. His Hampton Choir performed at the Library of Congress and for American president Herbert Hoover. Among Dett’s compositions for the Hampton Choir are “Listen to the Lambs” (1914) and “Don’t be Weary, Traveler,” the winner of the 1920 Francis Boott Prize at Harvard University.

Carry Me Home: The Story of Nathaniel Dett Chorale
Video clip from the documentary Carry Me Home: The Story & Music of the Nathaniel Dett Chorale.

Addie Aylestock


Image: Addie Aylestock (courtesy Ontario Black History Society/BME Christ Church St. James)

The eldest of eight from a Glen Allen, Ontario family, Addie Aylestock was descended from a long line of those who settled along the Conestogo River. She made her way to the big city of Toronto for greater opportunities when she entered her teens. In order to support herself she took the work that was available to all Black women at the time—domestic work (cook/housekeeper)—to earn her board and keep. Aylestock felt a higher calling and attended the Medical Missionary College with the hope of working in Africa. However, in order to qualify for this ultimate foreign service, she would have needed to find the additional means of first obtaining training in the United States.

She chose to remain in Toronto, furthering her training at Toronto Bible College (TBC) while attending the British Methodist Episcopal Church (BME). She graduated from TBC in 1951, and by 1959 she was a deaconess with the BME. The role of deaconess was a spiritual/community leadership role available to women — there were no higher positions at that time. However, The Doctrine and Discipline of the British Methodist Episcopal Church, the church’s rules and regulations, was amended at an annual conference, allowing for the ordination of women. Aylestock became the first ordained woman minister of the BME and the first African-Canadian woman minister in Canada. Since the BME had churches throughout Canada, during her more than 20 years as a minister Aylestock was able to develop or further organize Ontario BME congregations in Fort Erie, Guelph, Owen Sound, Niagara Falls, North Buxton and St Catharines as well as congregations in Montreal and Halifax. She also served as the general secretary of the BME Conference from 1958 to 1982.
Rev. Addie Aylestock
Scroll down the page for a brief bio of the esteemed Rev. Addie Aylestock. From the Human Rights Office, George Brown College.

 

Calvin Ruck


Image: Calvin Ruck (courtesy School of Social Work, Dalhousie University)

Following World War One, many from the Caribbean were drawn to the area around Sydney, Nova Scotia, for the work offered in the coal mines. Calvin Ruck was born to parents who had emigrated from Barbados, settling in Whitney Pier. Calvin worked at Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation before finding employment in the job that many Black men were welcome to have at the time, that of porter with the Canadian National Railways, from 1945 to 1958.

His experience in trying to buy a home in Westphal near Dartmouth, a White neighbourhood, changed the direction of Ruck’s life. Ruck and his wife had to deal with a petition issued by the residents trying to keep them out. While the family was successful in ultimately buying the home of their dreams in 1954, ongoing incidents of hostility made their day-to-day experience a near nightmare.

To cope with some issues of injustice, African-Canadians often felt it better to try to put up with them rather than confront them since outright challenges could result in being fired or facing increased problems. Maybe his work as a janitor at the air force base in Shearwater encouraged Ruck to reconsider the need to fight. He became a quiet resister, for example refusing to accept that barbershops would not serve his family or the Black community. As he sat in the shop “waiting for service” other patrons would not come in, which affected the barber’s income.

In the 1970s, Ruck enrolled in a social work program and graduated from Dalhousie University. He served on the Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission during the 1980s. However, it was his efforts to preserve, tell and commemorate the history of the Black veterans of the First World War—”No. 2 Construction Battalion”—that resulted in his success at having a permanent cairn erected at Pictou, Nova Scotia, to the battalion’s honour in 1993. Ruck was appointed to the Senate in 1998, the third African-Canadian so appointed.
Canada’s Black Battalion: No. 2 Construction
Read an online digitized copy of Calvin Ruck’s book Canada’s Black Battalion: No. 2 Construction, 1916-1920. From the Our Roots website.

 

Maurice Ruddick

On October 23, 1958, a massive “bump”—similar to a small earthquake—collapsed No. 2 colliery of the Cumberland mines in Springhill, Nova Scotia, trapping 174 men 3900 metres underground. Rescuers acted immediately, with little hope there would be many survivors. Slowly they extracted men, alive and dead, from the ground. On the ninth day, they reached the last 7 to be found alive. Among them was Maurice Ruddick, a 46-year-old African Canadian, a slim man with a thin moustache who always pomaded his hair.

When the miners finished a shift, it took an hour to ride to the surface in the trolleys. Ruddick would sing during the trip, blues, jazz or popular songs of the day. Some of the miners joined him to sing “Dem Bones” or “Don’t Be Cruel” or “Bye Bye Love.” As they ascended from the pit, their baritones rumbled up ahead of them, audible to the company men who worked on the surface.

After the mineshaft caved in on them, the 7 men struggled to survive. Ruddick, despite a broken leg, helped his companions keep their spirits up by singing and leading them in song and prayer. He later described the experience in “Springhill Disaster,” the song he wrote about the event.

Ruddick and the other “miracle miners” enjoyed public attention briefly after the disaster. For Ruddick, the only Black in the group, racism dimmed his moment in the spotlight. As you will learn in the accompanying Historica Minute Maurice Ruddick, survivors of the disaster were invited by Georgia’s governor to vacation at a luxurious resort. Upon learning that Ruddick was Black, the governor said that Ruddick would have to be segregated. Ruddick agreed to the governor’s terms so the other miners’ vacation would not be ruined, but he and his family stayed in a trailer apart from his colleagues.

The 1958 mine collapse killed 74 men and ended Springhill’s tenure as a large-scale mining town. The mines were sealed shortly after the Big Bump. Maurice Ruddick died in 1988, all but forgotten for his role during those 9 long days.

Springhill Mine Disaster: Maurice Ruddick
A 1958 photograph of injured miner, Maurice Ruddick, in hospital. From the website for Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management.

Mayann Francis


Image: The Honourable Mayann E. Francis (courtesy Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia)

Mayann Elizabeth Francis was born in Sydney (Whitney Pier), Nova Scotia, one of seven children. Her parents were newcomers to Canada; her father, George, was originally from Cuba and her mother, Thelma, was from Antigua. Francis was brought up in the church, in part due to her father’s role as the archpriest of the African Orthodox Church.

While her neighbourhood was diverse, issues of inequality influenced Francis’ higher education and working life to compel her to try to affect change. Following her graduation from St. Mary’s University, where she earned a Bachelor of Arts degree (1972), she worked for the Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission. She then lived in the United States for 16 years, working and earning a Master of Arts degree in Public Administration from New York University in 1984. She focused on personnel and labour relations issues•issues that affect the quality of people’s lives on a daily basis•and issues that seek rectification through public bodies.

Upon returning to Canada, she became an assistant deputy minister with the Ontario Women’s Directorate before accepting the position of director. She went on to serve as the chief executive officer of the Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission.

Francis’ efforts to bring about equality and inclusiveness have been recognized by a Harry Jerome Award from the Black Business and Professional Association, the Multicultural Education Council of Nova Scotia Award, and the Golden Jubilee Medal.

Mayann E. Francis was the first woman ombudsman of Nova Scotia and when she became lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia in September 2006, she became the first Black Nova Scotian and the second Black Canadian (after Lincoln Alexander of Hamilton, Ontario) to hold this position.
CBC: The Honourable Mayann E. Francis
Listen to a CBC interview with The Honourable Mayann E. Francis, lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia.

Deborah Cox

Born July 13, 1974, in Toronto, to parents who hailed from Guyana, South America, Deborah Cox showed musical talent as early as age three. By age 12 she was singing in television commercials. Attending Earl Haig Collegiate by day, she was escorted to talent competitions and auditions by her mom, and in the evening, was performing in nightclubs or writing music. She met Lascelles Stephens, who shared her love of music and supported her interest and wanted her to succeed. Although she repeatedly tried to have her music, heavily influenced by rhythm and blues, recorded under Canadian labels, her attempts failed. Like many before her, she headed to Los Angeles, with her producer and partner, Lascelles to seek her fortune.

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Deborah Cox

Within a year, Cox was set to meet a key executive with Arista Records. He was so impressed with her unaccompanied performance that he signed her immediately. While her first album did well enough, her career began to soar with the 1998 release of her single “Nobody’s Supposed to be Here” on her second album One Wish. The song was number one on the charts (Billboard’s Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles and Tracks) for 14 weeks—a record that was not broken for almost 8 years.

Cox is often referred to as Canada’s top R&B artist; she also has international accolades and broad ambition. In addition to her many albums, Cox has contributed her vocal talents to movie soundtracks, which have included Dr. Doolittle, Hotel Rwanda, and Akeelah and the Bee, and acted in films, including Love Come Down and Blood of a Champion. By 2008, Cox had started her own record label, Deco Recording Group. She released “Beautiful U R” to iTunes and Amazon.com, and it rose to the top 10 on the Canadian Radio Chart. In January 2009 it was certified gold for digitally downloaded music. In September 2009, in cooperation with Kelly Price and Tamia, Cox created the pro-social movement the Queen Project, which seeks to empower women through community service projects.
Deborah Cox
A 2009 interview with singer and actor Deborah Cox. From the website soulmusic.com.

 

Leonard Braithwaite

Leonard Braithwaite was the first African Canadian in a provincial legislature when he was elected in Ontario in 1963. He served as a Liberal member of the Ontario legislature from 1963 to 1975. In his first speech to the legislature he spoke out against racial segregation in Ontario schools. Soon after, the Ontario government repealed the law that allowed school segregation.

Braithwaite
Image: Leonard Braithwaite (courtesy Ontario Black History Society)

Braithwaite was raised in the Kensington Market area of Toronto during the Depression and served in the RCAF in the Second World War. He attended the University of Toronto, where he earned a Bachelor of Commerce degree. He earned a Master of Business Administration from the Harvard Business School, graduating in 1952, and graduated from Osgoode Hall Law School in 1958, followed by a career in law. He was the first Black lawyer elected as a member of the Governing Council of the Law Society of Upper Canada.

Braithwaite began his political career in 1960 as a member of the Etobicoke board of education. Two years later he was elected as an alderman on the Etobicoke council and ran in the provincial election in 1963, defeating the Progressive Conservative candidate. He was re-elected in 1967 and 1971, serving as the Liberal Party Critic for Labour and Welfare. As a politician he fought for gender equality and the rights of minorities.

In 1998, Braithwaite was invested as a Member of the Order of Canada. He was appointed to the Order of Ontario in 2004.
Leonard Braithwaite
A brief profile of Leonard Braithwaite, the first Black elected to a Canadian provincial legislature. From the website Some Missing Pages.

Robert Sutherland

Robert Sutherland was born in Jamaica and came to Kingston, Ontario, to study at Queen’s University in 1849. While at Queen’s he won 14 academic prizes. In 1852, he graduated with honors in classics and mathematics. He then pursued law and was qualified by 1855. He served as a lawyer in Berlin (now Kitchener) and Walkerton (near Owen Sound) and held a municipal office. Upon his death, Sutherland, who had never married, left his estate of $12,000 to Queen’s University. This bestowment allowed Queen’s to remain separate from the University of Toronto. Sutherland may have been the first Black student and the first Black graduate of Queen’s and the first Black lawyer; he was also clearly one of the most important benefactors of Queen’s University.

Sutherland
Image: County of Bruce Directory, listing Sutherland’s practice.

Who was Robert Sutherland?
A profile of Queen’s alumnus Robert Sutherland. Also includes digitized archival material that relates to Sutherland’s legal career. From the Queen’s University website.

Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

carolbhttgf1
Presented by: Carol Boeth

Please continue to keep Black history alive 365 day / yr.

VOICE OF THE FUGITIVE
Traveling Agents for the Fugitives Home Society in Mich. Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

 

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851-1852)

The writer provides a brief update on his recent activities.

voice of thefugitive
Anti-Slavery in Illinois. Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

Mary E. Bibb

Mary Elizabeth Bibb (1820 – 1877) was an American-born educator and abolitionist leader. She is considered by some to be the first female black journalist in Canada.

The daughter of free black Quaker parents, she was born Mary Elizabeth Miles in Rhode Island around1820.  She studied at the Massachusetts State Normal School in Lexington, graduating in 1843.  The principal of that school was Samuel Joseph May, who supported women’s rights and education for black people.  She was one of the first black woman teachers in North America and taught in schools in Boston, Albany and Cincinnati.  She became involved in anti-slavery activities and, in 1847, met Henry Bibb, an escaped slave and abolitionist.  She became Bibb’s second wife in June the following year.

After the Fugitive Slave Act was passed in 1850, the Bibbs moved to Canada West, settling first in Sandwich and then in Windsor. The couple frequently took fugitives into their home who had arrived in Windsor via the Underground Railroad. In 1851, they began publishing a newspaper Voice of the Fugitive, the first major newspaper targeted at black Canadians. Mary and Henry Bibb were also part of the leadership of the Refugee Home Society, which helped former slaves settle in Canada, providing them with land and building schools and churches. Mary also taught school, educating both children and adults.  In 1851, the Bibbs organized a North American Convention in Toronto on how free black Americans and Canadians should respond to the Fugitive Slave Act. Henry died suddenly in 1854 at the age of 39

Sometime after 1855, Bibb married Isaac N. Cary. She operated a store in Windsor from 1865 until 1871.  After Cary’s death, she moved to Brooklyn, where she died in 1877.

In 2005, Mary and Henry Bibb were declared Persons of National Historic Significance by the Government of Canada.

 

Speaker:  Bibb, Mary E.

Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

A teacher asks for help to continue educating children of the fugitives and the poor in her area.

refugeeschool
Schools among the Refugees. Voice of the Fugitive – April 12, 1851

References

 

Henry Bibb

Henry Walton Bibb (May 10, 1815 in Cantalonia, Kentucky – 1854) was an American author and abolitionist who was born a slave. After escaping from slavery to Canada, he founded an abolitionist newspaper, The Voice of the Fugitive. He returned to the US and lectured against slavery.

 

 

Biography

Bibb was born to an enslaved woman, Milldred Jackson, on a Cantalonia, Kentucky, plantation on May 10, 1815. His people told him his white father was James Bibb, a Kentucky state senator, but Henry never knew him.[1] As he was growing up, Bibb saw each of his six younger siblings, all boys, sold away to other slaveholders.[1]

In 1833, Bibb married another mulatto slave, Malinda, who lived in Oldham County, Kentucky. They had a daughter, Mary Frances.

In 1842, he managed to flee to Detroit, from where he hoped to gain the freedom of his wife and daughter.  After finding out that Malinda had been sold as a mistress to a white planter, Bibb focused on his career as an abolitionist. He traveled and lectured throughout the United States.

In 1849-50 he published his autobiography Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, An American Slave, Written by Himself,  which became one of the best known slave narratives of the antebellum years. The passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 increased the danger to Bibb and his second wife Mary E. Miles, of Boston. It required Northerners to cooperate in the capture of escaped slaves. To ensure their safety, the Bibbs migrated to Canada and settled in Sandwich, Upper Canada now Windsor, Ontario.

In 1851, he set up the first black newspaper in Canada, The Voice of the Fugitive.  The paper helped develop a more sympathetic climate for blacks in Canada as well as helped new arrivals to adjust.  Due to his fame as an author, Bibb was reunited with three of his brothers, who separately had also escaped from slavery to Canada. In 1852 he published their accounts in his newspaper.[1]

He died young, at the age of 39.

Bibliography

  • Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, An American Slave, Written by Himself, Self-published, New York: 1849

READ MORE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Bibb

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

Brief overview of Liberian president Roberts’ Inaugural Address, and the current influence of the American Colonization Society in Liberia.

refugeeliberia
Liberia. Voice of the Fugitive – April 22, 1852

Speaker or author: editor

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

The writer tells his readers that fugitive slaves are still arriving in Canada via the Underground Railroad. From their stories he has discovered that human beings are more motivated to work by positive reward than by the negative punishment of slavery.

refugeey
“The Cry is, Still They Come.” Title: Voice of the Fugitive – April 22, 1852

Speaker or author: editor

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

Brief overview of the Canada Mill and Mercantile Company that offers opportunity for employment and a relief from charity for fugitive slaves.

fugitivecanadamill
Subtitle: Canada Mill Company. Title: Voice of the Fugitive – April 22, 1852

Speaker or author: editor

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

The writer continues his story of one man’s experience as a fugitive from slavery that was begun in another issue of the paper.

fugitiveslave
Subtitle: The Lost is Found. No. 4. Title: Voice of the Fugitive – April 22, 1852

Speaker or author: editor

Newspaper or publication: Voice of the Fugitive (1851 – 1852)

The writer recounts the experience of a fugitive slave who has just arrived in Canada.

Description of file(s): one scanned, two columned, newspaper page

fugitiveselfemancipation
Subtitle: Self Emancipated. Title: Voice of the Fugitive – April 9, 1851

READ MORE:  http://research.udmercy.edu/find/special_collections/digital/baa/index.php?field=DC_title_parent&term=Voice+of+the+Fugitive+%281851+-+1852%29

Dorothy Height

Dorothy Irene Height (March 24, 1912 – April 20, 2010)[1] an American administrator and educator, was a civil rights and women’s rights activist specifically focused on the issues of African-American women, including unemployment, illiteracy, and voter awareness.[2] She was the president of the National Council of Negro Women for forty years and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1994 and the Congressional Gold Medal in 2004.

Early life

Dorothy Height was born in Richmond, Virginia. During childhood, she moved with her family to Idaho, Pennsylvania, a steel town in the suburbs of Pittsburgh, where she graduated from Rankin High School in 1929. Height received a scholarship from the Elks, which helped her to attend college.

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Remembering Dr. Dorothy Height.

She was admitted to Barnard College in 1929, but upon arrival was denied entrance because the school had an unwritten policy of admitting only two black students per year. She enrolled instead at New York University, earning an undergraduate degree in 1932 and a master’s degree in educational psychology the following year.[5] She pursued further postgraduate work at Columbia University and the New York School of Social Work (the predecessor of the Columbia University School of Social Work).

Career

Height started working as a caseworker with the New York City Welfare Department, and at the age of 25, she began a career as a civil rights activist, joining the National Council of Negro Women. She fought for equal rights for both African Americans and women. In 1944 she joined the national staff of the YWCA. She was also an active member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority throughout her life, developing leadership training programs and ecumenical education programs.[7] She served as national president of the sorority from 1946 to 1957.dorothyheight1

In 1957, Height was named president of the National Council of Negro Women, a position she held until 1997. During the height of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, she organized “Wednesdays in Mississippi,” which brought together black and white women from the North and South to create a dialogue of understanding. Height was also a founding member of the Council for United Civil Rights Leadership. In his autobiography, civil rights leader James Farmer described Height as one of the “Big Six” of the Civil Rights Movement, but noted that her role was frequently ignored by the press due to sexism.

Dorothy_Height,_president_of_the_National..._-_NARA_-_196283
Dorothy Height with Eleanor Roosevelt, 1960

American leaders regularly took her counsel, including First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.[clarification needed] Height encouraged President Dwight D. Eisenhower to desegregate schools and President Lyndon B. Johnson to appoint African-American women to positions in government. In the mid-1960s, she wrote a column called “A Woman’s Word” for the weekly African-American newspaper the New York Amsterdam News, and her first column appeared in the issue of March 20, 1965, on page 8.

Height served on a number of committees, including as a consultant on African affairs to the Secretary of State, the President’s Committee on the Employment of the Handicapped, and the President’s Committee on the Status of Women. In 1974, she was named to the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, which published the Belmont Report[10] a response to the infamous “Tuskegee Syphilis Study” and an international ethical touchstone for researchers to this day.

Later life and death

In 1990, Height, along with 15 other African Americans, formed the African-American Women for Reproductive Freedom.[11] Height was recognized by Barnard for her achievements as an honorary alumna during the college’s commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 2004.

Dorothy_I._Height_Building
The Dorothy I. Height Building, headquarters of the National Council of Negro Women, located on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C.

The musical stage play If This Hat Could Talk, based on her memoirs Open Wide The Freedom Gates, debuted in 2005. The work showcases her unique perspective on the civil rights movement and details many of the behind-the-scenes figures and mentors who shaped her life, including Mary McLeod Bethune and Eleanor Roosevelt.

Height was the chairperson of the Executive Committee of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, the largest civil rights organization in the USA. She was an honored guest at the inauguration of President Barack Obama on January 20, 2009, and was seated on the stage.[1]

She attended the National Black Family Reunion, celebrated on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., every year until her death in 2010.

On March 25, 2010, Height was admitted to Howard University Hospital in Washington D.C. for unspecified reasons. She died three weeks later, on April 20, 2010, at the age of 98. Her funeral service at the Washington National Cathedral on April 29, 2010 was attended by President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama, as well as many other dignitaries and notable people.[12] She was later interred at Fort Lincoln Cemetery in Colmar Manor, Maryland.

Personal life

According to a family history DNA analysis performed by African Ancestry Inc.,[13] Height’s maternal line has a root among the Temne people of modern-day Sierra Leone.

Awards and honors

READ MORE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Height

 

 

Teaching truthful and accurate Black History